• Heikki Hyötyniemi: Prologue
  • Jouko Seppänen: Feedback: Conceptions in cultural history, philosophy, science, and technology
  • Raimo Ylinen: General systems – theory of feedback
  • Heikki Hyötyniemi: Control engineering – the heavy machinery of feedback
  • Tuomas Raivio: On dynamic games and optimal strategies
  • Heikki Hyötyniemi: Complex behavior from simple nonlinear feedback
  • Matti Bergström: The brain as a system
  • Kai Hakkarainen: Learning as interaction
  • Kari Lagerspetz: Feedback in biology
  • Pia Koskenoja and Osmo Kuusi: Critical masses in social dynamics
  • Markku Perkola: System dynamics: Closed feedback loops in industrial markets
  • Yrjö Aulin-Ahmavaara: Epilogue


Fifty years ago, Norbert Wiener published his books “Cybernetics” and “Human Use of Human Beings”, thus signalling the start of the era of Artificial Intelligence. Since that, our understanding of complex behaviors emerging in feedback systems has considerably deepened; it seems that the same phenomena pop up in almost all branches of human life. The role of this book is to bring together people from different disciplines to see the different facets of the same simple underlying principles.

Dynamic systems, cybernetics; artificial intelligence


This volume is the compilation of the presentations given during the Feedback Symposium Aug. 28, 2000, in connection with the Finnish Artificial Intelligence Days STeP 2000.